Several studies have identified polymorphisms that appear to be linked to heart failing and systolic dysfunction in blacks, plus some studies have shown that the risk associated with these polymorphisms can be most significant among blacks with hypertension.4,5,29,30 Most of these studies are tied to the small amounts of black participants and having less longitudinal data to determine how scientific and genetic factors may interact in the development of this disease. This is a significant area for further research. Our results with respect to systolic dysfunction possess implications for the identification of people who are at high risk for the development of heart failure and possess implications for preventing this disease. Current guidelines recommend initiating treatment for asymptomatic systolic dysfunction with ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers prior to the onset of symptoms of center failure.4,31-33 Although screening for systolic dysfunction in the overall population has several limitations,34 screening high-risk groupings in order to target therapies may be a significant tool for the prevention of heart failure.35,36 Young adults have not been included in clinical trials of preventive therapies or screening strategies, and the huge benefits and risks of these approaches in a young at-risk population are not known.I've place several three-year-olds on it and, with the medication, it's like night and day, says Dr. Wiznitzer. It's amazing how much better the behavior gets but you need to know what you're doing. It's almost unheard of to give to a two-year-old, continues Dr. Wiznitzer. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not have any recommendations for ADHD for children under the age of four but Dr. Wiznitzer says the U.S. Government funded a study, the Preschool ADHM Treatment Research, to check out the disorder in children three to five years previous. He says medication can help particular toddlers but just as a last resort.