We acquired written informed consent from the affected individuals and their family and written informed consent from the handles. The institutional review plank of Niigata University accepted this study. Assay of HTRA1 Protease Activity Expressing HTRA1 in Escherichia coli as fusions with glutathione S-transferase, we subcloned wild-type or mutant HTRA1 complementary DNA , lacking codons 1 through 140, in to the vector pGEX 6P-3 . The N-terminus of HTRA1 is toxic to E. Coli. Amino acid substitution of the serine protease motif S328A, which abolishes the protease activity in HTRA1, was used as a negative control.14 Glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins were overexpressed and purified.Since bats play a vital function in ecosystems, both as pollinators and through their intake of insects bad for crops, this may have a devastating effect on the overall economy. The April 2011 issue of Science included an article reporting on another research looking at the monetary influence of potential bat extinction. Researchers estimated that the increased loss of bat populations could cost the united states agriculture system more than $3.7 billion each year. Some researchers predict the bat die-off may require more extensive use of pesticides to pay for fact that insects destructive to crops will no longer be subject to predation by the night-flying mammals.